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ABC (TTP) Art Bombing Clan crew in Munich, Germany was started 1988. Won - known for his much advanced (usually red pink) characters - is one of the members, as are Cowboy 69 and Vince from München and it also includes writers from Basel. Other members through the years are Rebel, Shame, Gawky, Crash, Cash, Gjeli, Maroc, Craze, Zope, Mosart und Chromz (R.I.P.) Below: ABC´s Crazy Orman Monsdare by Won, Cowboy 69, Vince, Dare, Show. München Hall of Fame 1992.  Lit.: Schluttenhafner/Klaußenborg (ed.): Graffiti Art. Deutschland - Germany. Schwartzkopf, Berlin 1995; Won: Colour Kamikaze. Ed. Kunst der Comics, Germany 1999; Juice nr 8/1999. Website: http://www.studio-now.de/abc-graffiti/abc.htm
ABC No Rio Dinero.  Lit.: ABC No Rio Dinero.The Story of a Lower East Side Art Gallery. Ed: Alan More, Marc Miller. (Catalogue.) Abc No Rio, N.Y. 1985. 195 p.
Ace 137 Early Old school tagger from N.Y.
Admiror, (TG) paries, te non cecidisse ruinis, qui tot scriptorium taedia sustineas - latin graffiti scratching from Pompeii 79 A.C that could be translated “I admire you, wall, that by all this scribble you do not fall, you, the dumping-ground for all writers!”
Adolescent Art Is there an Art of the Young? Children´s Art and drawing development has been carefully described (by Kelloggs a.o) and it also inspired artists such as Klee and Dubuffet. But the common opinion has been that these aesthetically dynamic early years come to an end in the pre-puberty phase, which has been described as regressive and utterly self critical. Some take up comix influences or look for “realism”; too many young people quit drawing completely during this stage. But with the 1970s and 80s this situation has been changed to a high degree.
The TTP-movement has borne a new interest for pictorial creativity by many thousand youngsters over the world, and this time it will be useless to deny that even teenagers can make art. Lit.
 Hartwig, Hellmut: Jugendkultur - Ästhetische Praxis in der Pubertät. Rowohlt, Hamburg 1980. 381 p. and Hartwig, Hellmut: “Graffiti als stellvertreter affekte.” In: S.Müller: Graffiti - Tätowirte Wände. Bielefelt 1985, p. 133-141.
Adrenalin 1. C9H13NO3, a hormone which increases heart rate, blood pressure and blood sugar level, and what really hits you when you are doing » tags,
» throw-ups or» pieces.
2. The title of an exhibition of Aerosol Art held at City Gallery in Melbourne, Australia July 9 - July 23,1988 with Jme, Prime, Spy, Zikos, Peril, Ransom, Jule, Wisp, Guy and Jay.
Aeroplane, writing on (TTP) The first to tag an aeroplane was > Cornbread. He wrote his name on the wings of a TWA aircraft which left Philadelphia Airport for the south in the late 60´s. There have been some similar occasional events since then. But the first ”whole plane” piece, from tail to cockpit, was done in early January 27, 2001 by Danish writers on a white Fokker plane at Kastrup Airport, Copenhagen. Lit.: Padwe, Sandy: The Aerosol Autographers - Why They Do It. Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, May 2, 1971; Fly overmalet med graffiti. Politiken 27/1 2001; Klint, Lars: Flygplan täcktes med graffiti. Expressen 29/1 2001.
Aerosol Art (TTP) One of the synonyms of Tags/Throw-ups/Piece (TTP); Spraycan Art, Spray Art, Subway Art (see these words) and similar expressions are also used. Definition: It means the historically new and independent kind of graffiti originated by youngsters in Philadelphia and New York in the late 1960s/ early 1970s which spread over the world in the 1980s - doing» tags,» throw-ups and» pieces with marker and spray paint on walls and trains, mainly under subcultural and unlawful circumstances.The motif is primarily the letter, sometimes with characters, and the concept is one of style. » Wild style lettering is one of the most prolific, complex and original contributions from youth culture to art history ever. Aerosol Art also includes legal and socially accepted forms such as spray art on canvas or commissioned wall art.  Lit: Jacobson, Staffan: The Spray-Painted Image. (Diss.) Aerosol Art Archives, Lund University, Sweden 1996.
Aerosol Kingdom The title of a famous burner by»Vulcan, N.Y. 1986. Lit.: Chalfant/Prigoff: Spraycan Art. T&H, London 1987.
Aerosol School (TTP) or the Aerosolskolan was an independent graffiti community centre in Uppsala, Sweden in early 1990:s which was very successful for 2 years. Wellknown writers as Code (headmaster), Dwane and Pike were teaching art class basics and spay can technique on a regular and well-organised basis. The school also initiated similar activities in several other cities , made a project painting in Katowice, Poland (the first in that country) and in autumn 1992 held a major convention with the BBC crew, Africa Bambaataa, James Prigoff and writers from all Europe. During this period of the Schools activities, the illegal graffiti in the city decreased at a significant rate, which was also the case at» Kungsholmens Graffitiskola in Stockholm 1989. Lit.:Aerosol School Goes to Katowice. Erik Olsson/IOR/Studiefrämjandet/Hip Hop Corporation, Uppsala 1991. Videogram, documentary, 25 min.
Aerosoul Magazine (TTP) Note the spelling! Fanzine in full colours, published in Rihen, Switzerland since 1993.
Aesthetics of Graffiti. (TTP) TTP has a very special art criticism of its own. The means of the painting should be rational (see Technique) but the result ought to be “impressive”. The most wanted response is a “Wow!” and a state of visual shock and physical excitement, not an intellectuel reaction. When writers judge each other´s pieces, the following criteria are usually taken under consideration:

1) technique, 2) fantasy and originality, 3) style 4) colours, 5) size, 6) physical difficulty and effort , 7) location , 8) risk, 9) time, 10) total impression.

Out of those criteria an objective judgment is possible: to divide the good work from the not so good . But that does not mean judgement is necessary, because one could also look at a piece in many other ways, as is done in pictorial analyses or when reviewed by non-writers. But knowledge and experience, and an open mind nonetheless, heighten the reception for everybody. Then, you can have just as good a time watching the piece as the writer had doing it!
Afghan Trucks (TG) A very special public art form exists in Afghanistan, where drivers decorate their private truck vehicles with Arabic calligraphy (even in 3-D style!), ornaments, patterns and romantic, somewhat naive pictures of modern life and technology, religious motifs, women or landscapes in bright colours. Lit.: Blanc, Jean-Charles: Afghan Trucks. Stonehill, N.Y. 1976.
Ahearn, Charlie (TTP) *1951, N.Y; known as the author of the film » “Wildstyle” 1982. Also runs Pow Wow Productions in N.Y.
Ahearn, John * 1951, N.Y. Painter and sculptor, known above all for 50 life- cast portraits of Bronx inhabitants 1979, organising» The Times Square Show 1980 and cooperating with COLAB and» Fashion Moda.
AIO (TTP) All In One is originally the crew of the Swedish writers Circle (letters) and Weird (characters), and it includes writers from Denmark and Germany, such as Bates and Side. The group is known for big murals like “Fascinate” 1989 and “Apocalypse” 1991, for a “clean” letter style and sometimes of Arabic art influences in characters.
Airbrush (TTP) Invented in the 1890s by Joe Binks for fast white-washing and improved with a breakthrough in 1923 that brought more suitable colours. This too l, as well as the spray gun, is far more sophisticated - and also constitutes heavier equipment - than a spray can, and is mostly used for commercial art and speciality painting on cars etc. It gives a smooth and slick image with acrylics and a glossy surface with enamels. Writers sometimes use it on T-shirts, jackets or fancy works on cars. Lit.: Peacock, Ian: Airbrushing and spray painting manual. Argus Books, England (1984) 1989.
AIS (TTP) Atlantic Island Warriors, contemporary German crew.
Ak, Edith de (TTP) Art critic who made the most essential interview so far with Rammellzee in the article Train as Book, Letter as Tank, Character as Dimension. in Art Forum, May 1983, p. 88-93. She also wrote about» Dondi in Dondi White. , Feb 1983, p. 83-84.
AK-47 Chinese Street Art artist Zhang Dali write ”AK-47” or ”18K” in the urban Beijing environment in the late 1990´s.  Lit.: Stuart, Lyn: Dialog- the graffiti art of 18K.” Bejing Scene, Vol 5, Issue 4, 1999.
Akay (TTP) Swedish writer, together who with News, Thrill and Dudge are the original members in the » VIM crew, started 1988. In Spring 1990 VIM painted Sweden´s first whole-train - 8 whole cars ( 200 meters) by Akay, Ceios, Dudge, News and Terror.

The slogan ”akayism” appears to be tagged posters in of various kinds, applied with glue on the wall, stencil letters, stickers and spraypaint applied together in a conscious and creative street-art manner on the urban consumistic evironment. Sometimes there is a message: ”I scribble therefore I am”, ”I want my planet back” or a pleasantly puzzling one like ”Akayism is your only protection”. Akayism has become a concept in it self and for a radical transgression of Swedish graffiti.

Lots of pictures on www.akayism.com
 Lit.: Malm, Rasmus: Public Space. A Guerilla Art Attack hits Stockholm. Adbusters magazine, June/July 2000. http://adbusters.org/campaigns/urbanspace/stockholm.html
Alfresco History (TG) Review of William McLean´s book » Contribution a L’etude de L’iconographie Populaire de L’erotisme. Lit.: Alfresco History . Time, April 13, 1970, p. 41.
Alienation is both a structural and a mental state , caused by the compart mentalization of work, life and relationships which prevent perspective and understanding and make us feel like soulless consumers with no power over our own lives. An non-alienated act could be a creative and subversive , an “art crime”, like writing graffiti. Lit.: Internationale Situationniste. Nr 1/1958 - 12/1969. Ed.: Guy Debord. Éditions Champs Libre, Paris 1975. and Israel, Joachim: Alienation - från Marx till modern sociologi. Lund 1968.
Alinovi, Francesca (TTP) Italian art critic who wrote the famous article “Twenty-First Century Slang”, since then translated into many languages, for the »Arte di Frontiera exhibition catalogue Lit.: Arte di Frontiera - New York Graffiti. Mazzota, Milano 1984.
All City (TTP) Describes writers who tag ubiquitously. Cornbread in Philadelphia was the first “tagger” and the first all city writer, Taki 183 was first in New York with this ambition (even though Julio started tagging before him in the same city). Lit.: Stewart, Jack: Subway Graffiti: An aesthetic study of graffiti on the subway system of New York City, 1970-1978. New York University, N.Y. 1989. ; and Ley, David & Cybriwsky, Roman: Urban Graffiti as Territorial Markers. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 64, no 4/1974, p.491-505.
Almaraz» Chicano Art
Aman (TTP) * 1973, Swedish writer who does small and intricate pieces. Below, Aman & Pker.
Amen (TTP) Swedish Christian writer, who colloraborated with Zappo and Circle on the huge mural “Admire the Nature”, Norrköping 1991.
Amici della Catacombe (TG) The Vatican society for preservation of the Roman » catacombs. See also» Bosio.
Amok (TTP) German writer, King of Style in Berlin 1985-1991.
Anarchy, the symbol of (TG) The word “anarchy” comes from Greek “an”- without, and “archos” - ruler, and it properly means a direct democratic society with no state or hierarchy.
One of the most frequent political graffiti symbols is the A inscribed in a circle. A is for Anarchy and the circle O is for Order, as in Proudhon´s proverb. There is photographic evidence from the Spanish Civil War 1936-39 where this sign was seen on a helmet; and 1956, on November 25, the Alliance Ouvriere Anarchiste (AOA) adopted this symbol.
In recent time this symbol was championed by the magazine Jeunesses Libertaires in France, April 1964, as a suggestion for a graphic symbol of anarchism. Some influence from the > peace-sign is clear. 1966 it was used by the Sacco-Vanzetti group in Milan, and from the May revolt of Paris 1968 it was visible everywhere. In Europe it was from time to time connected with the > Punk movement and the squatter movement, (BZ). Today it is a generally accepted and widely spred symbol of anarchist ideas and of the new generation Anarchist and Autonomy activists.
 Lit.: Peter Peterson: ”Flag, Torch, and Fist: The Symbols of Anarchism", Freedom, vol. 48, No. 11, p. 8. ; ”Geschichten des A.” Karin Kramer Verlag, Berlin 1982. On the history of the philosophy and the social movements : Woodcock, George: ”Anarchism”. The World Publ. Comp., N.Y. 1962. http://www.infoshop.org/faq/append2.html See also» BZ-graffiti.
Animal ornaments (TTP) The Nordic animal ornaments style was used in handicrafts in the Scandinavian countries during the Vendel period, 550-800 A.D. There are some astonishing similarities between this style and of TTP and its “camouflage”method , not in influences or historic circumstances, but in the execution: the animal shape (instead of the letter shape in TTP) was abstracted and rearranged to such an extent that just a decorative, rhythmic pattern was left in the picture. Still, the original shape could be discearned by training. Some of this is also true for Celtic Art, but in the above-mentioned case it is obvious. Lit.: Jacobson, Staffan: The Spray-Painted Image. (Diss.) Aerosol Art Archives, Lund University, Sweden 1996.
Antarctic graffiti (TG)

According to Walter Sullivan in his book “Quest for a Continent”, the name “Finn Ronne” was written by his father Martin Ronne in an Antarctic camp during the first successful expedition, and recognised during a later expedition in 1933.
 Lit.: Reisner, Robert: Graffiti. Two Thousand Years of Wall Writing. Cowles, N.Y. 1971, p. 15.
Anti-fascist Art in Spain. (TG) Anti-fascist Art in Spain. The Anarcho-Syndicalist Spanish Revolution 1936-1939 during the Civil War against Franco was also a movement with huge artistic creativity, as can be seen in the excellent colored propaganda posters, the wall paintings – and even the painted trains (!) and other vehicles.  http://picturebook.nothingness.org/pbook/1936/display/57
Anti-Graffiti (TTP) » Graffiti Prevention
Anti-Graffiti Network Organisation started in Philadelphia 1984 by its mayor ; see also » NGIN.
A-One (TTP) Anthony Clark, * 1964, Manhattan, N.Y., writer and painter with several successful exhibitions in USA and Europe. Lit.:Parmesani, Loredana: A One. Flash Art 116, March 1984, p. 44.
Arctic graffiti (TTP) The first T-2-B train piece at the Arctic pole circle was done in 1993 by the finnish writers Hiv, Poe and Egs.  Lit.: Monmagnon, Olivier: Sabotage! Florent-Massot, Paris 1995. (The chapter of Finland, last pages.)
Arris (TTP) South African writer in the TVA tribe (The Villainous Animators) crew in South Africa.
Arrow, the (TTP) 1) The arrow, designed in a personal way, is an important detail in» Wildstyle lettering to add life and motion to the letter-picture. It is seen in both traffic signs and Islamic» calligraphy, but how it got into Wildstyle is not quite clear. However, Cool Earl used the arrow - according to Jack Stewart - in Philadelphia as early as 1966!

2) The Arrow - a writer-organised, major exhibition (50-80 big canvases) of contemporary graffiti art, held in Stockholm July 27 - Aug. 9, 1998, including live painting, American guests, a daily guided tour and video documentation. Organisers » Twisted Minds (Denmark) Roots Org. and Stocktown 98 (Sweden).
Art There is hardly any definition of “art” accepted by everyone, but there are several possible. “The institutional definition” by George Dickie is:

“A work of art in the classificatory sense is 1) an artifact 2) upon which some person or persons acting on behalf of a certain social institution (the art world) has conferred the status of a candidate for appreciation.”

TTP as an underground movement which at the same time has been accepted in the galleries, by critics and therefore by the art world seems to be art by this definition. TG could be seen as > Art Brute (“raw art”) according to the French informal painter Dubuffet. Both forms have been an important source of inspiration for academic trained and/or successful artists, as TTP for Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat and TG for Picasso and Klee.
 Lit.:Dickie, George: Aesthetics. An Introduction. Pegasus, N.Y. 1971.
Art After Midnight The title of a book by Steven Hager, which in a lively way describes the bohemian avant garde night life at the New Wave clubs and graffiti galleries of the Lower East , Manhattan in the mid-80:s, during the “art boom”, a melting pot that created contacts between the young students from School of Visual Arts and the writers and led to the so-called Street Art phenomena and the interest for spray art on canvas. Lit.: Hager, Steven: Art After Midnight. St. Martins Press, N.Y. 1986.
Art and Life is One. Quotation (of high validity for TG and TTP) by Tristan Tzara,1896-1963, French-Romanian author, one of the founders of the DADA movement in Zürich 1916.
Art Brut (“raw art”) French term used by > Dubuffet, representing certain informal art in reaction against the academic taste. Dubuffet in 1947 began collecting art by non-professionals like art of the insane, of children, so called “primitive” art and by amateurs. The Collection de l’Art brut has 5000 pictures and sculptures by 200 artists, and is now a museum in the city of Lausanne.
Art Crimes The largest (30.000 visitors per day) graffiti site on the Internet contains TTP-actualities and world-wide pieces, available at the Internet on http://graffiti.org. Susan > Farrell was its originator in 1994 and it is still run by Susan and Brett Webb. Art Crimes also has links to most other graffiti-sites in the world.
Art Nouveau» Mucha» Psychedelic Art.
Arte di Frontiera An exhibition of Aerosol Art held at Galleria communala d´arte moderna in Bologna, Italy in March-April 1984 with Futura 2000, J-M Basquiat, K. Haring, K.Scharf, Koor, Lee, Jenny Holzer, Lady Pink, Richard Hambleton, John Ahearn and others.
Ash (TTP) *1968 in Madrid, member of the» BBC crew, known for his excellent canvas work.
Ask (TTP) Swedish writer of the late 1990:s, known for excellent colouring in characters, and his cute monsters. Cooperating with Marvel who does the letters.
Astor, Patti (TTP) Gallery owner from N.Y, participant in the film»“Wildstyle” 1982 in the role of a naive journalist.
Astronaut graffiti (TG) Visiting the Russian Mir Space Station, astronaut David Wolf wrote in a letter home in Oct. 13, 1997:

Signatures and instruction placards written by the hands of over a decade of cosmonauts who maintained and lived in this true marvel of human achievement.

Since the first space journeys began there are occasionally rumors of graffiti on the Moon but thus far with no photographic evidence.
At 149 st. (TTP) A New York City website done by writers in memory of the Writers Bench at 149 st. On: www.at149st.com
Atom (TTP) Writer from Brooklyn, N.Y. (SCA. p. 37)
Avelon (TTP) Danish fine arts painter, former writer in the Dark Roses crew with» Romance and now in the Killing Fields crew. Lit.: Poulsen, Rasmus: Graffiti i Danmark. Klematis, Denmark 1997.

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